Prompt Engineering Tutorial – Master ChatGPT and LLM Responses
5 Sept 202341:36

TLDRIn this comprehensive tutorial on prompt engineering, Anu Kubo guides viewers on how to elicit the most effective responses from large language models (LLMs) like Chat GPT. The course covers the fundamentals of prompt engineering, which is a career born from the rise of AI, involving the crafting and optimization of prompts to enhance human-AI interaction. Anu introduces various aspects, including AI basics, types of LLMs, and strategies like zero-shot and few-shot prompting. She emphasizes the importance of clear instructions, adopting personas, and iterative prompting. The tutorial also delves into the history of language models, the concept of AI hallucinations, and the use of text embeddings for semantic representation. Anu provides practical examples and encourages hands-on practice with the OpenAI API, concluding with a demonstration of creating text embeddings to find semantically similar words. The course is designed to maximize productivity with LLMs and offers insights into the thought processes behind prompt engineering.


  • πŸš€ **Prompt Engineering Importance**: Prompt engineering is a career that involves crafting and optimizing prompts to enhance the interaction between humans and AI systems.
  • πŸ’‘ **AI and Machine Learning**: Artificial intelligence simulates human intelligence processes, often through machine learning, which uses training data to predict outcomes based on patterns.
  • πŸ“š **Understanding Language Models**: Language models are computer programs that learn from a vast collection of text and can generate human-like responses based on their understanding of language.
  • 🧠 **Linguistics and Prompt Engineering**: Knowledge of linguistics is crucial for prompt engineering as it helps in crafting effective prompts by understanding language nuances and structures.
  • πŸ’» **History of Language Models**: Language models have evolved from early programs like ELIZA to modern models like GPT-4, showcasing the progression of AI's ability to process and generate language.
  • 🎯 **Zero-Shot and Few-Shot Prompting**: Zero-shot prompting allows AI to answer questions without prior examples, while few-shot prompting provides the model with a few examples to enhance its responses.
  • πŸ€– **AI Hallucinations**: AI hallucinations refer to the unusual outputs AI models may produce when they misinterpret data, offering insights into their thought processes.
  • πŸ“Š **Text Embeddings and Vectors**: Text embeddings represent text in a format that can be processed by algorithms, capturing semantic information through high-dimensional vectors.
  • πŸ“ **Best Practices**: When writing prompts, clarity, specificity, and adopting a persona can lead to more effective and accurate AI responses.
  • πŸ” **Token Economy**: Interactions with AI models like GPT-4 are measured in tokens, which represent chunks of text, and understanding token usage can help optimize prompt efficiency.
  • 🌐 **Using Chat GPT**: Familiarity with platforms like OpenAI's chat GPT is essential for practical application of prompt engineering techniques.

Q & A

  • What is prompt engineering and why is it important?

    -Prompt engineering is the process of writing, refining, and optimizing prompts in a structured way to perfect the interaction between humans and AI. It is important because it maximizes productivity with large language models and ensures the effectiveness of prompts as AI progresses.

  • Why did the career of prompt engineering arise?

    -The career of prompt engineering arose due to the rise of artificial intelligence. As AI developed, there was a need for human involvement in refining how humans interact with AI to the highest degree possible.

  • What is the role of a prompt engineer?

    -A prompt engineer is responsible for creating and optimizing prompts to improve interactions with AI. They must also continuously monitor the prompts to ensure their effectiveness over time, maintain an up-to-date prompt library, and report on findings while being a thought leader in the field.

  • How does artificial intelligence work?

    -Artificial intelligence works by simulating human intelligence processes through machines. It often refers to machine learning, which uses large amounts of training data to analyze correlations and patterns. These patterns are then used to predict outcomes based on the provided training data.

  • What is the significance of linguistics in prompt engineering?

    -Linguistics is crucial for prompt engineering because it involves the study of language, including grammar, sentence structure, meaning, and context. Understanding these nuances helps in crafting effective prompts that yield accurate results from AI systems.

  • How does a language model function?

    -A language model is a computer program that learns from a vast collection of written text. It analyzes sentences, examines word order, meanings, and generates a prediction or continuation of the sentence that makes sense based on its understanding of language.

  • What are the best practices to consider when writing a good prompt?

    -Best practices include writing clear instructions with details, adopting a persona, specifying the format, using iterative prompting, avoiding leading the answer, and limiting the scope for long topics.

  • What is zero-shot prompting and how does it differ from few-shot prompting?

    -Zero-shot prompting is querying a model without any explicit training examples for the task at hand, relying on the model's pre-trained understanding. Few-shot prompting, on the other hand, enhances the model with a few training examples via the prompt, without the need for full retraining.

  • What are AI hallucinations and why do they occur?

    -AI hallucinations refer to unusual outputs that AI models produce when they misinterpret data. They occur because the AI, trained on vast amounts of data, sometimes makes creative connections not based on factual information, leading to inaccurate or fantastical responses.

  • What is text embedding and why is it used in prompt engineering?

    -Text embedding is a technique to represent textual information in a format that can be easily processed by algorithms, especially deep learning models. It converts text prompts into high-dimensional vectors that capture semantic information, allowing for better processing and understanding by AI systems.

  • How can one create and use text embeddings with the OpenAI API?

    -One can create text embeddings using the create embedding API from OpenAI. This involves making a POST request to the API endpoint with the model and the input text. The response returns an embedding, which is an array of numbers representing the semantic meaning of the text.

  • What is the significance of adopting a persona when crafting prompts?

    -Adopting a persona helps ensure that the language model's output is relevant, useful, and consistent with the needs and preferences of the target audience. It's a powerful tool for developing effective language models that meet user needs by simulating a specific character or user profile.



πŸš€ Introduction to Prompt Engineering with LLMs

The video introduces the concept of prompt engineering, emphasizing its importance in maximizing productivity with large language models (LLMs). Anu Kubo, a software developer and instructor, explains that prompt engineering involves crafting prompts to refine interactions between humans and AI. The course covers various AI applications, including chat GPT, text-to-image models, and text-to-speech, and discusses the need for prompt engineers to stay updated with AI advancements.


πŸ€– AI and Language Models in Depth

This paragraph delves into the basics of artificial intelligence (AI), differentiating it from machine learning and explaining how AI models use training data to predict outcomes. It also explores the role of linguistics in crafting effective prompts and introduces language models as computer programs that learn from text to generate human-like responses. The paragraph highlights the applications of language models in virtual assistants, chatbots, and creative writing.


πŸ“š History of Language Models and Prompt Mindset

The script discusses the evolution of language models, starting with Eliza in the 1960s and progressing through Shudlu, GPT-1, GPT-2, and GPT-3. It emphasizes the importance of adopting a prompt engineering mindset similar to effective Googling, where precision and specificity are key to obtaining desired results without wasting time and resources.


πŸ’‘ Using Chat GPT and Understanding Tokens

The paragraph provides a tutorial on using chat GPT by OpenAI, including signing up, logging in, and interacting with the platform. It explains how to create new chats, delete old ones, and switch between models. The concept of tokens in GPT-4 is introduced, detailing how texts are processed in chunks called tokens and how they are billed. The paragraph also guides on how to check token usage and manage account billing.


πŸ“ Best Practices in Writing Effective Prompts

The video outlines best practices for writing effective prompts, such as providing clear instructions, adopting a persona, using iterative prompting, avoiding leading questions, and limiting the scope for broad topics. It provides examples of how to write clearer prompts and emphasizes the importance of specificity to avoid wasting tokens and get accurate responses.


🎯 Advanced Prompting Techniques

The script covers advanced prompting techniques like zero-shot prompting, which utilizes a pre-trained model's understanding without further training, and few-shot prompting, which enhances the model with a few examples. It also touches on AI hallucinations, where AI models produce unusual outputs due to misinterpretation of data, and the importance of text embeddings in representing textual information for AI models.


🌟 Conclusion and Final Thoughts

The final paragraph recaps the course on prompt engineering, summarizing the topics covered, including an introduction to AI, linguistics, language models, prompt engineering mindset, using GPT-4, best practices, zero-shot and few-shot prompting, AI hallucinations, and text embeddings. It encourages viewers to experiment with the create embedding API from OpenAI and thanks them for watching the course.



πŸ’‘Prompt Engineering

Prompt engineering is the practice of crafting inputs to optimize the performance of large language models (LLMs) like ChatGPT. It is central to the video's theme, as the course is designed to teach techniques for enhancing interactions between humans and AI. The instructor discusses the career opportunities in this field and how companies are investing in professionals skilled at refining prompts to ensure the highest degree of useful output from AI models.

πŸ’‘Large Language Models (LLMs)

Large Language Models, or LLMs, such as ChatGPT, are advanced AI systems capable of understanding and generating human-like text. In the video, LLMs are discussed in the context of their application in various fields and their foundational role in the practice of prompt engineering. Examples include their use in creating text-based outputs and how they can be prompted to generate specific responses.

πŸ’‘AI Hallucinations

AI hallucinations refer to the phenomenon where AI systems generate false or irrelevant outputs based on misinterpretation or over-interpretation of the data. The video uses Google's Deep Dream as an example to explain how neural networks might enhance patterns in images to produce surreal or unintended visuals. Understanding AI hallucinations is important for prompt engineers to mitigate these effects in LLM outputs.

πŸ’‘Zero-shot Prompting

Zero-shot prompting is a technique where a model generates a response based on a prompt without any prior specific training on that task. This method is highlighted in the video to showcase how models like GPT-4 can leverage their vast training data to answer queries without needing further examples. It represents a foundational concept in prompt engineering, emphasizing the model's capability to understand and respond with no additional context.

πŸ’‘Few-shot Prompting

Few-shot prompting involves giving a model a few examples to guide its response to a prompt. In the video, this technique is used to refine the accuracy of LLM responses by providing some context or examples before asking for a specific output. This method helps to tailor the model's responses more closely to the user's needs and is a critical strategy in advanced prompt engineering.

πŸ’‘Text Embeddings

Text embeddings are numerical representations of text that capture semantic meanings, enabling machines to process and understand language. The video discusses embeddings in the context of their importance in AI and prompt engineering, illustrating how they allow LLMs to relate words semantically rather than just syntactically. This concept is crucial for developing more intuitive and contextually aware AI responses.


GPT-4 is a version of the Generative Pre-trained Transformer, an advanced LLM discussed in the video. It's used as a primary example to illustrate the capabilities of current AI technologies in understanding and generating human-like text. The video utilizes GPT-4 to demonstrate prompt engineering techniques and its effectiveness in generating accurate and contextually relevant responses.

πŸ’‘Machine Learning

Machine learning is a subset of AI that involves training algorithms on a data set to make predictions or decisions without being explicitly programmed to perform the task. The video touches on machine learning as the underlying technology behind LLMs like ChatGPT, explaining how patterns in data are used to train these models to simulate human-like interactions.

πŸ’‘Natural Language Processing (NLP)

Natural Language Processing, or NLP, is the technology used by AI to understand, interpret, and generate human language. In the video, NLP is discussed in the context of its use in LLMs and its importance in prompt engineering. The understanding of NLP is crucial for effectively using and refining AI tools in various applications.

πŸ’‘Computational Linguistics

Computational linguistics is the study of using computer algorithms to process and understand human languages. The video introduces this field in relation to AI development, particularly in how language models are trained. This knowledge is essential for prompt engineers who need to understand how AI interprets and generates language for crafting effective prompts.


Prompt engineering is a career that involves writing, refining, and optimizing prompts to perfect human-AI interaction.

Prompt engineers are required to continuously monitor and update prompts to maintain their effectiveness as AI progresses.

Artificial intelligence simulates human intelligence processes but is not sentient and cannot think for itself.

Machine learning uses training data to analyze patterns and predict outcomes, categorizing information based on learned correlations.

Prompt engineering is useful for controlling AI outputs and enhancing the learning experience through tailored responses.

Linguistics is key to prompt engineering, as understanding language nuances is crucial for crafting effective prompts.

Language models are computer programs that learn from written text and generate human-like responses based on their understanding.

The history of language models began with Eliza in the 1960s and has evolved to include advanced models like GPT-4.

Good prompts should be clear, detailed, and avoid making the model's response too predictable to prevent biased outcomes.

Zero-shot prompting allows querying models without explicit training examples, leveraging the model's pre-trained understanding.

Few-shot prompting enhances the model's performance by providing a few examples of the task, avoiding full retraining.

AI hallucinations refer to unusual outputs when AI misinterprets data, offering insights into the model's thought processes.

Text embeddings represent textual information as vectors that capture semantic meaning, aiding in processing by algorithms.

Text embeddings allow for the comparison of semantic similarities between different texts or words.

The use of personas in prompts can ensure the language model's output is relevant and consistent with the target audience's needs.

Iterative prompting involves asking follow-up questions or asking the model to elaborate for more focused and accurate responses.

The importance of limiting the scope of long topics to get more focused answers from the language model.

The use of the create embedding API from OpenAI to convert text into a format that can be processed by algorithms.